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[{"id":"1","line_start":"1","line_end":"1","source":"Actus primus, Scena prima","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Each act is marked this way, but the scenes are not marked after the first one, and Act 2 lacks the scene formula. Critics disagree about who was responsible for the designations, whether Shakespeare (BALDWIN, 1947) or the printer (GREG, 1955, p. 201; FOAKES, ed. 1962, p. xvi)."},{"id":"2","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Warburton","Citation":"ed. 1747","Reference_Start":"263","Reference_End":"268","comment":"'This was the character the ancients gave [Ephesus].'' "},{"id":"3","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Upton","Citation":"1746; 1748, pp. 323-4 n.","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Shakespeare calls Ephesus ''the land of conjurors and witches. He had his eye chiefly on that passage in Acts xix, 19,'' explaining the bad reputation for chicanery Ephesus proverbially had. "},{"id":"4","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Capell","Citation":"1774, p. 71","Reference_Start":"262","Reference_End":"268","comment":"'The character given of Ephesians in this place is the very same that it had with the ancients, which may pass for some note of the Poet's learning.'"},{"id":"5","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Douce","Citation":"1807, 2:289","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'In the ancient city of Ephesus we have ducats, marks, and guilders, and the abbess of a nunnery. Mention is also made of several modern European kingdoms, and of America; of Henry the Fourth of France, of Turkish tapestry, a rapier, and a striking clock; of Lapland sorcerers, Satan, and even of Adam and Noah. In one place Antipholis calls himself a Christian. As we are unacquainted with the immediate source whence this play was derived, it is impossible to ascertain whether Shakspeare is responsible for these anachronisms.''"},{"id":"6","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Knight","Citation":"ed. 1842, pp. 135-6","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Against Douce: ''The poets of Shakspere's time had no hesitation in placing the fables of the romantic ages in classical localities, leaving the periods and the names perfectly undefined and unappreciable.'' "},{"id":"7","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Lloyd","Citation":"in SINGER, ed. 1856, 2:82","Reference_Start":"264","Reference_End":"268","comment":"considers why Shakespeare changed the locale from Epidamnus to Ephesus, commenting on 264-8: \"The description is in accordance with various classical notices of Ephesian practice, but inasmuch as it is still more so with the account in the Acts of the Apostles of the exorcists in that city, Jewish and other, we . . . see at least the poet's motive for transferring [Err.] to a locality where such would most alarm and bewilder, and professors of exorcism like . . . Pinch, be within call traditionally; the play upon the name of Epidamnum, was necessarily lost in translation\" (i.e., \"The verie name shews the nature, no man comes hither sine damno [without harm]\" [Menaechmi, tr. 1595; see p. 314])."},{"id":"8","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Porter and Clarke","Citation":"ed. 1903","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"\"One of the twelve Ionian cities, on the south bank of the Castrus, said to be named from one of the Amazons; celebrated as the seat of worship of Artemis [Diana], and also for the founding there by Paul of a Christian church. There has been some discussion . . . as to whether in Shakespeare's play we have pagan Ephesus or Christian Ephesus. As the play is full of allusions which belong to Elizabethan England, the wisest conclusion is to regard it as an Ephesus which existed only in the poet's fancy.\""},{"id":"9","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Modern commentators beginning with BULLOUGH (1957, 1: 9-10) emphasize the thematic advantages of referring to the Epistle to the Ephesians, with its call for obedience of wives to husbands, and servants to masters, as well as other matters pertinent to this play."},{"id":"10","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Foakes","Citation":"ed. 1962, pp. xxix f.","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'One motive in changing the scene to Ephesus may have been to give the play a setting more familiar to a London audience, for Ephesus was known not only through the Bible, but as a seaport, and the home of a famous temple of Diana. So, in The Excellent and pleasant Works of Julius Solinus Polyhistor (1587 [Arthur Golding's trans. of a 3rd-c. AD book]), Shakespeare might have read of Asia Minor that it was enclosed 'on the [W]est wyth the Aeg[ae]an Sea. . . . In it is the most famous Cittie Ephesus. The beauty of Ephesus is the Temple of Diana, buylded by the Am[o]zons.' There is no evidence that Shakespeare did read this book, but he probably knew of Solinus, whose name he gave to the Duke.''"},{"id":"11","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Gray","Citation":"1927, p. 108","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"First calls attention to Golding's translation and the Duke's name. "},{"id":"12","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Cantrell","Citation":"(privately)","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Points out that the River Cayster, which had provided the harbor for Ephesus, had been silted in since at least AD 1500."},{"id":"13","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Foss","Citation":"1979, p. 168","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'The record of sixteenth-century Ephesus is almost blank, and when information is again available, the flourishing commercial town had declined to become a village which constantly fell further into ruin and squalor. . . . The remaining harbor was silted and trade shifted to Izmir and Scalanova. . . . The swamps produced by the silting were no longer drained and gave rise to malaria.'' "},{"id":"14","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Bullough, like Foakes, calls it a seaport, but neither Solinus nor COOPER (1565) mentions Ephesus's much earlier fame as a port and mercantile city."},{"id":"15","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Ephesus","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Commentators, beginning with WISLICENUS (1879, p. 94), sometimes remark that Gower's queen is cast ashore at Ephesus in ''Apollonius of Tyre.'' It cannot be made certain whether Acts, Eph., or Gower first suggested the change in locale."},{"id":"16","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Siracusa","author":"Porter and Clarke","Citation":"ed. 1903","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Syracuse was the most powerful and important of all the Greek cities in Sicily, and was situated on the east coast of the island.'' It is mentioned in Menaechmi, Prologue 17: ''Mercator quidam fuit Syracusis senex'' (''There was a certain old merchant in Syracuse'' [tr. Nixon, 1917, 2:367]). "},{"id":"17","line_start":"2","line_end":"2","source":"Siracusa","author":"Wells","Citation":"ed. 1972","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Fuses spellings ending in 'e' [1599, 1849], 'a' [7, 1801, 1806, 1809, 1811], and 'ia' [401, 786, 861, 1183, 1440] indiscriminately except that scansion sometimes demands a strong ending, as [7].'' Sy- spellings occur just twice (40, 165); see n. 18. Wells: ''The first syllable is long, as in 'sire.'''"},{"id":"18","line_start":"5","line_end":"34","source":"Proceed...Ephesus","author":"Gill","Citation":"1930, p. 26","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Listing parallels with Menaechmi: ''Prologue and Argument: The father is mentioned; he dies of grief when his son is lost.''"},{"id":"19","line_start":"5","line_end":"5","source":"Proceed","author":"Schmidt","Citation":"1875, 5","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Go to work, act.'' "},{"id":"20","line_start":"5","line_end":"5","source":"Proceed","author":"OED","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Does not attest this sense of starting up, but rather of continuing."},{"id":"21","line_start":"5","line_end":"5","source":"Proceed","author":"Dorsch","Citation":"ed. 1988","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Implies ''that the action begins in media re'' (v. 3a). "},{"id":"22","line_start":"5","line_end":"5","source":"Proceed","author":"Matthews","Citation":"1913, p. 71","Reference_Start":"163","Reference_End":"169","comment":"'In his search for his lost sons the merchant has come to Ephesus in defiance of the decree which forbade any Syracusan to land upon its shores under penalty of death.'' It is usually assumed Egeon was ignorant of the law, as apparently is S. Antipholus (163-9)."},{"id":"23","line_start":"5","line_end":"5","source":"Solinus","author":"Cuningham","Citation":"ed. 1907","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'The Duke's name is not mentioned elsewhere in the play.'' "},{"id":"24","line_start":"5","line_end":"5","source":"Solinus","author":"Wells","Citation":"ed.1972","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Rhymes with minus."},{"id":"25","line_start":"6","line_end":"6","source":"doome","author":"Schmidt","Citation":"1874, subst. 1","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":" ''Sentence'' (OED, sb. 2)."},{"id":"26","line_start":"7","line_end":"31","source":"Merchant...Sonne","author":"Smith","Citation":"1966, pp. 23-4","Reference_Start":"30","Reference_End":"31","comment":"''The romance frame is not entirely without traces of satire. . . . If the duke's pompous exposition of the law . . . is not sufficient warning not to take too seriously the threat which surrounds the central comedy, what follows it makes the signposting unmistakable. Can Aegeon's reply [30-1] be taken otherwise than as indicating that the Duke's platitudes are among the woes?''"},{"id":"27","line_start":"7","line_end":"7","source":"plead no more","author":"Wells","Citation":"ed. 1972, pp. 23-4","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Egeon seems to have been embracing his fate rather than pleading against it; but perhaps his end woes and all is interpreted as a plea for sympathy.''"},{"id":"28","line_start":"8","line_end":"8","source":"partiallto","author":"Schmidt","Citation":"1875","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Inclined to favour one party more than the other'' (OED, a. 1b). "},{"id":"29","line_start":"8","line_end":"8","source":"partiallto","author":"Baldwin","Citation":"MS","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'By his office an impartial upholder of the laws, Solinus cannot infringe them for Egeon.''"},{"id":"30","line_start":"9","line_end":"29","source":"The...die","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"A trade war between two Greek city-states, not found in Shakespeare's sources."},{"id":"31","line_start":"9","line_end":"29","source":"The...die","author":"Steevens","Citation":"ed. 1778, 3:491","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Compares Shr. 4.2.81-2 (1937-8): '''Tis death for anyone in Mantua To come to Padua.''"},{"id":"32","line_start":"9","line_end":"29","source":"The...die","author":"W.M.T.","Citation":"1871, p. 220","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"George Gascoigne's Supposes (1566), a source for Shr., uses a similar trade war between Siena and Ferrara. See BULLOUGH (1957, 1:122)."},{"id":"33","line_start":"9","line_end":"29","source":"The...die","author":"Unwin","Citation":"1916, 1:315","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Describes contemporary English trade feuds: ''The Stratford council employed men armed with cudgels to keep out traders of Coventry. . . . Between many neighbouring towns there raged an animosity almost as fierce as the feud between Ephesus and Syracuse.''"},{"id":"34","line_start":"9","line_end":"9","source":"late","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"How long the decree had been in effect is not clear. Egeon has been away from home for five years (135)."},{"id":"35","line_start":"9","line_end":"9","source":"late","author":"Matthews","Citation":"1913, p. 71","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Apparently alone, thinks he has come ''in defiance of the decree''; see n. 5."},{"id":"36","line_start":"10","line_end":"10","source":"Sprung","author":"Editors","Citation":"","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"For this form, the normal 16th-c. past tense, rather than ''sprang,'' see FRANZ p,164, OED (v.1)."},{"id":"37","line_start":"10","line_end":"10","source":"rancorous","author":"OED","Citation":"a. 2","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"Cites this line as the first occurrence."},{"id":"38","line_start":"10","line_end":"10","source":"outrage","author":"Schmidt","Citation":"1875, subst. 1","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Rude violence'' (OED, sb. 3). Cf. 1408."},{"id":"39","line_start":"10","line_end":"10","source":"your","author":"Byrne","Citation":"1936, p. 5","Reference_Start":"16","Reference_End":"16","comment":"'Solinus . . . uses [formal] your in referring to the Duke of Syracuse, and [it] may well be regarded as plural in meaning, e.g. the Duke of you (all) of Syracuse. Addressing Aegeon directly, Solinus says thy [16] as Duke to a person of the rank of subject, who is also a captive. Aegeon replies with a respectful your [30].'' She goes through the play commenting on the appropriate distinction between the singular and plural second-person pronouns."},{"id":"40","line_start":"10","line_end":"10","source":"your","author":"Byrne","Citation":"1936, p. 5","Reference_Start":"30","Reference_End":"30","comment":"'Solinus . . . uses [formal] your in referring to the Duke of Syracuse, and [it] may well be regarded as plural in meaning, e.g. the Duke of you (all) of Syracuse. Addressing Aegeon directly, Solinus says thy [16] as Duke to a person of the rank of subject, who is also a captive. Aegeon replies with a respectful your [30].'' She goes through the play commenting on the appropriate distinction between the singular and plural second-person pronouns."},{"id":"41","line_start":"11","line_end":"11","source":"well-dealing","author":"Wells","Citation":"ed. 1972","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Probably . . . 'conducting themselves well' rather than specifically 'conducting their business well.'''"},{"id":"42","line_start":"12","line_end":"12","source":"wanting","author":"Schmidt","Citation":"1875, Want vb. 2","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'To need'' (OED, pres. ppl., ppl. a. 1). "},{"id":"43","line_start":"12","line_end":"12","source":"gilders","author":"Steevens","Citation":"ed. 1778","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'A coin valued from one shilling and six pence, to two shillings.''"},{"id":"44","line_start":"12","line_end":"12","source":"gilders","author":"Fischer","Citation":"1985","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":" ''A general term for money . . . a Dutch measure of value. . . . A silver coin equal to one florin. . . . Any foreign coins circulating in England.''"},{"id":"45","line_start":"12","line_end":"12","source":"gilders","author":"Rolfe","Citation":"ed. 1881","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Shakespeare uses the word only here and at [985 in the canon].'' Cf. 985."},{"id":"46","line_start":"12","line_end":"12","source":"redeeme","author":"Schmidt","Citation":"1875","Reference_Start":"0","Reference_End":"0","comment":"'Ransom'' (OED, v. 3, citing this line). Cf. 1371."}]